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文理学院是不是我的菜?

2016-10-24 来源:哈耶普教育 浏览量:620
眼下,EA、ED的申请正在如火如荼地进行中,而再有12天,大部分学校的EA/ED申请就将落下帷幕。短暂而紧张的申请对于大部分学生都是一种煎熬和历练。然而除了申请本身,还有一件让学生百般纠结的事情,那就是ED学校的选择。根据ED Agreement,一旦学校发出录取,学生必须接受入学。所以,对于ED学校的选择,大家也都是思量再三,极其慎重。
 
鉴于综合性大学在过去一个申请季的残酷竞争,有学生会考虑我是否可以选择一所文理学院来作为我的ED选校。然而对于文理学院,学生和家长不可避免地又有些许担忧。首当其冲的就是文理学院的就业问题。通常来讲,大部分学生和家长都只是听闻文理学院重视文理兼修,极少有职业导向性特别强的专业设置,但对于文理学院学生的就业问题并没有一个清晰的认知,即文理学院毕业的学生是否真的很难就业,是否一定要继续读研才有出路?除此之外,对于文理学院的学校规模和小班教学,家长又会担心,自己孩子性格偏内敛,是否应该去综合性大学中历练一下?文理学院是否一定程度上不利于孩子性格的开放性培养?面对种种疑问,家长和学生心中倍感纠结。
 
一直以来,国内大部分学生和家长,以及相关教育机构和老师对于文理学院的了解都比较模糊,毕竟文理学院的申请量较之综合性大学相去甚远。市场规模放在那里,相应的学术调研也就比较少。那么目前解决纠结最有效的一种方法就是“现身说法”- 通过文理学院在读学生了解他们的学习现状和就业现状。说到这里,不得不想起4年前送出的气质学霸常同学,目前就读于综合排名第14位的文理学院Wesleyan University,大四在读,正在找工作。对于这个问题的探讨,常同学非常热心,非常严谨,而且非常有感触。常同学前后写了两封长长的邮件对上面的问题做了一个系统的解答。在征得他的同意后,我将他邮件中最直接有用的内容摘在这里,为大家翻译解答。
 
不过首先我还是先介绍一下常同学当时的申请背景。常同学是2013届山东省实验中学的学生,当时省实验还没有国际班。常同学申请时的标化分数是TOEFL 110,SAT1 2210,3门SAT2,同时有5门AP成绩。作为常同学的文书老师,我们最终拿到了Wesleyan University, University of California--Los Angeles, University of Michigan--Ann Arbor, University of North Carolina--Chapel Hill等众多美国前30名校的录取。
 
好,现在我们回到正题。
 
下面来自于常同学的邮件内容:
 
Finance and Consulting
For the most popular and lucrative industries such as finance and consulting, LAC undergrads have significant disadvantage in their recruiting process. The biggest reason is that the majority of new recruits for these companies come from "target schools", which are usually top national universities. However, LAC's are, to most of the companies, considered as non-target schools. The reason is very simple: the cost of recruiting at small schools is higher than their potential gains in recruiting. 
 
Being at a non-target school makes it extremely difficult to get into the top firms in these two industries, although exceptions could happen from time to time. I could talk more in depth about how these rare cases usually happen, but if the student has a very clear goal and strong will to work in these industries, I would suggest him/her to be very careful of going to LAC's, even it is Williams.
 
在常同学看来,如果学生将来想在类似于金融和咨询这些炙手可热同时收入又比较丰厚行业就业的话,就读文理学院将非常不利。最主要的原因是文理学院通常并不是这些行业公司招聘的 “target schools”(目标院校),这些公司的新职员主要来自于前列的综合性大学。这就类似于我们说国内的一些大型企业和公司的校招主要集中在985或211院校,而且“双非”学校的毕业生进入这样企业和公司通常比较难。
 
Technology
Tech is another industry that is extremely popular these years, and going into tech industries is the choice of my LAC undergrads. There are two kinds of jobs in tech industry: technical jobs and non-technical jobs. Technical jobs are those directly related to computer programing, coding or tech knowledge, while non-technical jobs are those usually associated with product management, marketing and administration. 
 
For technical jobs, they usually require a high level of skills in computer programming, which are not what LAC undergrads normally learn at school because of the nature of their education. Even for computer science major, their classroom knowledge are more on the theoretical side and less applicable to the jobs. Plus, national universities usually provide way better computer science programs and trainings, thus their students often have quite an edge in competitions. 
 
Non-technical jobs are the more common types of jobs that LAC students go for to enter the tech industry. However, most companies (i.e. Google) do NOT provide visa sponsorship for non-technical roles, which means only those who have either US citizenship or permanent residency can be considered. 
 
科技行业在近些年也是异常火热,文理学院的学生也会将其作为一大选择。通常科技行业中的工作分为两类,一类是跟技术相关的,比如计算机编程,编码,一类是非技术性的,比如产品管理、市场营销和行政。第一类工作对于相关的专业技能有着很高的要求,而很显然这并不是文理教育所侧重的。即使是文理学院下面的计算机科学专业,课堂所学更多地是在理论层面,而不是应用层面。第二类工作通常是文理学院学生在科技领域选择的主要类型。然而,大部分公司比如像是Google对于第二类工作并不提供visa sponsorship,这也就意味着只有美国公民或者说永久居民被纳入考虑范围。
 
Career Achievement
Even though career opportunities are limited for LAC undergrads, their long term career achievement is surprisingly good. As far as Wesleyan is concerned, a largest number of alums are at very high positions (former CEO of McKinsey, the writer and leading actor of the LEGENDARY broadway show Hamilton, etc.) in different industries and professions. Through my conversations with them and their personal reflections, I found that they all give a lot of credit to the liberal arts education they received at Wesleyan. The most common things they mentioned are the critical thinking ability, the liberal spirit of questioning and exploring, writing and reading skills, and the freedom to pursue their passions. The soft skills, I believe, are definitely important assets that LAC's have to offer. 
 
尽管从眼前来看就业机会对于文理学院的毕业生是有限的,但是从长远来看,文理学院学生的职业成就是令人惊奇的好。就他所了解,Wesleyan University的大批毕业生在不同的行业和领域做到了很高的职位,比如麦肯锡的前CEO,百老汇传奇巨制汉密尔顿的主演和作者。通过常同学跟他们的沟通交流,他发现他们都将此归功于他们在Wesleyan接受的教育。他们最多提及的就是这种教育所赋予他们的批判性思维,质疑和探索的自由精神,阅读和写作的技能,以及他们追求自己激情所在的自由。常同学自己也相信,这些软实力一定是文理学院所带给学生们的至关重要的资产。
 
In the end, I want to answer the question about whether is easier to fit in to the American culture at LAC. I personally think this argument is generally true. One personal observation is that LAC Chinese students generally have better English ability than big university students. I think there are two reasons: You do get a lot more opportunities to speak in classrooms, since classes are often very small, and you do not want to be the only one who is quiet throughout the class. Another reason is that, because the school is small, you have a lot of opportunities to get to know other people pretty well, especially Americans. It is hard to stay in the circle of Chinese students all the time, which is fairly common in big universities. 
 
同时,常同学认为文理学院的环境更易于国际学生融入美国文化。就他的观察,相比综合性大学的中国学生的英文能力,文理学院的中国学生的英文能力更好。他认为主要有两方面的原因,一是学生在文理学院的课堂上有更多的发言机会,因为课堂规模小,没有人想成为课堂上那个自始至终不说话的人。另外,校园规模小,学生之间有更多的机会彼此了解,尤其是跟当地的美国学生,而不是待在中国学生的圈子里,这在综合性大学比较普遍。
 
看过这些之后,大家的思路是不是进一步清晰了呢。如果说你还在纠结,那么我觉得你纠结的可能不是文理学院还是综合性大学,而是自己想要什么。好,常同学提供的有关文理学院的信息分享我们就先到这里,后面我们会继续跟他保持沟通,为大家提供及时有效的信息。

本文作者:李宁老师

英国约克大学传媒硕士,全能型资深留学文书申请老师,深谙托福写作、ACT写作、文书写作之道,活动规划和文书创作经验丰富,指导帮助数十位济南学子成功申请到美国TOP35顶尖名校--宾夕法尼亚大学,纽约大学,加州大学洛杉矶分校,北卡教堂山等;在托福写作教学方面,独到的授课方式,清新自然的授课风格,吸引众多托福写作“问题”学生,并帮助学生突破自我,取得28+的分数。

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