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从托福阅读材料看西方思维的批判性思维

2018-04-12 来源:未知 浏览量:129
托福之前讲到到底什么才是批判性思维(critical thinking)和批判性思维的发展与相关解释;今天我们就从更实用的角度来看一下,通过一些文本例证批判性思维的应用。
 

PO3综合写作部分的阅读材料和听力材料就是一个很好地运用批判性思维的例子,我们可以通过分析材料的结构和论证方式,总结出一些西方批判性思维的表现。今天就与大家一同分析一下这篇材料中“批判性思维”的应用。
 
文章开头是Rembrandt is the most famous of the seventeenth-century Dutch painters. However, there are doubts whether some paintings attributed to Rembrandt were actually painted by him.陈述伦勃朗的艺术地位的同时,提出一个质疑,是否有些名义上归于伦勃朗的画是真正由伦勃朗亲手绘制而成的。
 

接下来自然是一个更具体的问题,质疑某一幅画是不是出自伦勃朗之手: One such painting is known as attributed to Rembrandt because of its style, and indeed the representation of the woman’s face is very much like that of portraits known to be by Rembrandt.
 
        
随着“但是(but)”的转折,再次强调对画是否出自伦勃朗之手提出质疑:But there are problems with the painting that suggest it could not be a work by Rembrandt.
 

提出质疑后自然就是列举理论依据支撑其观点:【First】, there is something inconsistent about the way the woman in the portrait is dressed. She is wearing a white linen cap of a kind that only servants would wear-yet the coat she is wearing has a luxurious fur collar that no servant could afford. Rembrandt, who was known for his attention to the details of his subjects’ clothing, would not have been guilty of such an inconsistency.
第一点的不和谐就是画中女性的衣着了。画中人衣着与身份不符,而伦勃朗正是对细节精益求精的一名画家,所以对他来说出现如此的不一致,值得怀疑。
 

【Second】, Rembrandt was a master of painting light and shadow, but in this painting these elements do not fit together. The face appears to be illuminated by light reflected onto it from below. But below the face is the dark fur collar, which would absorb light rather than reflect it. So the face should appear partially in shadow-which is not how it appears. Rembrandt would never have made such an error.
第二点,伦勃朗是一代光影大师,擅长光与影的刻画,但这幅画中的光影出现了不协调。然后从光线色彩的角度分析面部、衣领的光线如何“不搭”。表明伦勃朗是不会犯此类错误的。
 

【Finally】, examination of the back of the painting reveals that it was painted on a panel made of several pieces of wood glued together. Although Rembrandt often painted on wood panels, no painting known to be by Rembrandt uses a panel glued together in this way from several pieces of wood. For these reasons the painting was removed from the official catalog of Rembrandt’s paintings in the 1930s.
后,通过对画的背面的检查发现这幅画的木板是有几块木头粘在一起的。尽管伦勃朗常常会在木板上作画,但是尚未发现伦勃朗使用几块拼接的木板作画。
 

根据以上的三点依据,猜测此画并非伦勃朗所作。当然,做过TPO3的同学都知道,其实这幅画是伦勃朗所作,但是先前怀疑的并非自以为是的乱猜,确实有理有据,后续的听力材料会逐一解释。然而我们在这,关注点要放在文章“提出质疑——例证疑点——提出合理解释和解答”上。我们再看看后续解释是如何自圆其说的呢?
 

【First】, the fur collar. X-rays and analysis of the pigments in the paint have shown that the fur collar wasn't part of the original painting. The fur collar was painted over the top of the original painting about a hundred years after the painting was made. Why? Someone probably wanted to increase the value of the painting by making it look like a formal portrait of an aristocratic lady.
首先,通过技术手段发现衣领并非原作,是后续添加的。
 

【Second】, the supposed error with light and shadow. Once the paint of the added fur color was removed, the original could be seen, in the original painting, the woman is wearing a simple collar of light-colored cloth. The light-colored cloth of this collar reflects light that illuminates part of the woman's face. That's why the face is not in partial shadow. So in the original painting, light and shadow are very realistic and just what we would expect from Rembrandt.
其次,除去后续覆盖的部分,原作全貌一目了然,原先光与影不协调的问题自然也就不存在了。
 
【Finally】, the wood panel. It turns out that when the fur collar was added, the wood panel was also enlarged with extra wood pieces glued to the sides and the top to make the painting more grand and more valuable. So the original painting is actually painted on a single piece of wood, as would be expected from a Rembrandt painting. And in fact, researchers have found that the piece of wood in the original form of "Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet" is from the very same tree as the wood panel used for another painting by Rembrandt, his "Self-portrait with a Hat".

后,也是因为后续添加部分,导致画的面积变大,所以才会使用拼接木板拼合而成的新版。同时,研究人员也发现了这幅画上所使用的木材同伦勃朗的另一幅画所使用的木板来自同一颗树,也更加确凿的证明了此画出自伦勃朗之手。
 

虽然这是托福综合写作的题目,但阅读材料和听力材料不仅在写作上给我们列出了一个好的批判性思维运用的好教材,还带我们身临其境的感受到我们在阅读,在认识事物、了解事物的时候也可以运用的批判性思维。
 

这篇材料逻辑清晰,提出质疑——论据支撑——下结论——调查研究——做出回应——逐个应对质疑——总结(总结就是我们这套题中我们要完成的任务了!)。它给我们引入了一个“新”观点可供参考,便于我们锻炼批判性思维——那就是提出质疑,并且找到质疑的依据,有理有据地进行质疑。不论结果是与否,都可以帮助我们更多面的进行认知,也可以更好的拓展我们的思维。
 
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