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TOEFL阅读之事实信息题

2018-04-12 来源:未知 浏览量:83
跟词汇题一样,事实信息题是TOEFL阅读中比例高的题型,也是哈耶普TOEFL能力提升班中阅读部分的主攻题型之一。哈耶普托福高分不断,其中阅读分数一般是28、29、30。获得这样的分数,除了要掌握单词和长难句之外,还要具备另外两个能力 -- 关键词定位和同义改写,而这两个能力被应用多的题型就是事实信息题。
 
事实信息题要求同学们掌握三个做题步骤:
 
Step 1 题干: 从题干中找到定位关键词。
Step 2 原文: 通过定位关键词找到对应原文,得出原文答案。
Step 3 选项: 将四个选项跟原文答案进行对照,看哪个选项是对原文答案的同义改写。
 
关于Step 1,我们需要知道什么样的单词可以作为“定位关键词”。
按照“识别度高低”排序:
(1) 数字、大写、符号(引号、破折号、连字符、斜体...)
(2) 名词(以具体名词为主、抽象名词为辅,因为前者更不容易被改写)
(3) 比较级、高级
(4) 动词、形容词、副词
 
Step 1注意事项:
(1) 要对题干中诸如when、where 、how 、why等特殊疑问词敏感,这些单词可以帮我们更好地判断题目的考查方向,让我们知道终要找到什么。
(2) 文章标题词不可作为定位关键词,因为高频词没有定位价值。
 
关于Step 2,我们提到了“原文答案”,这是指:如果题目没有四个选项、只有题干的话,这道题就类似一道简答题,那么这个“原文答案”就是该简答题的答案。
 
关于Step 3,我们提到了“同义改写”,是指同义词或近义词的替换。
 
接下来我们运用这三个步骤解答下面两道题:
 
【例题1】
 
Statues were normally made of stone, wood, or metal. Stone statues were worked from single rectangular blocks of material and retained the compactness of the original shape. The stone between the arms and the body and between the legs in standing figures or the legs and the seat in seated ones was not normally cut away. From a practical aspect this protected the figures against breakage and psychologically gives the images a sense of strength and power, usually enhanced by a supporting back pillar. By contrast, wooden statues were carved from several pieces of wood that were pegged together to form the finished work, and metal statues were either made by wrapping sheet metal around a wooden core or cast by the lost wax process. The arms could be held away from the body and carry separate items in their hands; there is no back pillar. The effect is altogether lighter and freer than that achieved in stone, but because both perform the same function, formal wooden and metal statues still display frontality.
 
Which of the following statements about wooden statues is true?
 
(A) Wooden statues were usually larger than stone statues.
(B) Wooden statues were made from a single piece of wood.
(C) Wooden statues contained pieces of metal or stone attached to the front.
(D) Wooden statues had a different effect on the viewer than stone statues.
 
【解析】
 
Step 1 题干: 找出题干的定位关键词,是wooden statues;这是具体名词,一般不会改写。
 
Step 2 原文:根据wooden statues定位至倒数第三句(以By contrast开头),我们发现之后两句话也都是关于wooden statues的信息;那么原文答案就是后三句话。
 
Step 3 选项: 纵观四个选项,我们发现D选项跟原文后一句话but之前的信息同义改写,所以答案是D。
 
【例题2】
 
Though it may be difficult to imagine from a later perspective, a strain of critical opinion in the 1920s predicted that sound film would be a technical novelty that would soon fade from sight, just as had many previous attempts, dating well back before the First World War, to link images with recorded sound. These critics were making a common assumption—that the technological inadequacies of earlier efforts (poor synchronization, weak sound amplification, fragile sound recordings) would invariably occur again. To be sure, their evaluation of the technical flaws in 1920s sound experiments was not so far off the mark, yet they neglected to take into account important new forces in the motion picture field that, in a sense, would not take no for an answer.   
                                                                                                                                                                                                           
Which of the following is true about the technical problems of early sound films?
 
(A) Linking images with recorded sound was a larger obstacle than weak sound amplification or fragile sound recordings.
(B) Sound films in the 1920s were unable to solve the technical flaws found in sound films before the First World War.
(C) Technical inadequacies occurred less frequently in early sound films than critics suggested.
(D) Critics assumed that it would be impossible to overcome the technical difficulties experienced with earlier sound films.
 
【解析】
 
Step 1 题干: 找出题干的定位关键词,是technical problems of early sound films。这段所有句子就是围绕early sound films展开的,所以early sound films没有定位价值,所以需要通过technical problems来定位;technical problems是抽象词,一般会发生改写。
 
Step 2 原文: 我们发现原文中有两个短语都跟technical problems同义改写,分别是倒数第二句的technological inadequacies和倒数第一句的technical flaws。
 
Step 3 选项: 纵观四个选项,我们发现D选项跟倒数第二句同义改写,其中impossible to overcome跟原文中would invariably occur again是同义改写,technical difficulties跟题干关键词是同义改写。
 

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